(i) Awareness on sustainable building
Sustainability is still a relatively new concept for the construction
industry in the developing countries and has not yet received sufficient
attention. However, generally, there is an increase in awareness on sustainable
building and construction (SBC) in the region however not across the whole
spectrum of the building and construction sector.
Many important stakeholders (contractors, manufacturers, developers) in
South-East Asian construction industry are not even aware of the concept
of sustainable building, and so are naturally resistant to change. Hence,
the greatest barrier to implementation is the lack of understanding of
the NEED for sustainable design.
The economic barriers are also inextricably tied to the awareness mentioned
above, because markets are based on demand.
(ii) Special and cutting edge projects
It appears that majority of sustainable building projects in South-East
Asia (SEA) are especialf and cutting-edge rather than the
enormf. Currently, the extent of sustainable building practices
is limited to office and commercial buildings. The sophisticated nature
of the projects involved only major organizations/corporations and those
with the resources and capability to undertake such major projects.
(iii) Sustainable Housing
In regions marked by poverty and economic problems, it is very difficult
to establish environmental sustainability as a national priority. Sustainable
construction in South-East Asia tends to focus on the relationship between
construction and human development hence marginalising the environmental
aspects. The development of sustainable housing projects, as well as related
research in this area is still in its infancy. Currently, there is no
guideline/policy available to address sustainable housing construction.
(iv) Project delivery
Project delivery is a major issue in developing countries. Due to the
fragmented nature of the construction industry, project delivery is complex.
Sustainability has added to this complexity. The quality of construction
delivered is a major issue which in many respects are linked to the far
wider issues of educating the population and promoting investment. Just
like developed countries, it needs effective procurement and regulations
to ensure satisfactory in project delivery.
(v) Public policies and regulatory frameworks
In some countries, public policies and regulatory frameworks do not encourage
the development of the construction sector. Policies that negatively affect
the growth of the industry are often related to technology imports, government
subsidies for certain materials, distribution and pricing control of the
(vi) Energy efficiency driven
SBC practices concentrated on energy efficiency designs. The cost of sustainable
building options is a barrier to the routine use of sustainable strategies
in the construction profession. Some respondents quoted gThe construction
industry wonft go sustainable unless it saves money somehow.h
Majority of clients focused on energy efficiency heat, which is believed
to lead to an immediate payback.
(vii) Need of demonstration projects
The lack of interest from clients was cited as one of the significant
barrier to more widespread sustainable building practice in South-East
There is a clear need of further examples of SBC practices and demo/pilot
projects to convince construction stakeholders to adopt sustainable building
concepts. Builders and architects illuminate the perceived discord between
profits and environmental protection within the construction industry.
Many designers, especially from small-medium enterprises (SMEs) perceived
sustainable design and construction to involve extra costs, thus reducing
the competitiveness of their tenders and potentially resulting in loss
(viii) Stakeholder involvement at early design stage
In some projects stakeholders participation came at the later stage of
construction. Hence, there is a need to make clear the importance of stakeholders
involvement in the early design of the project. Implementing sustainability
issues starts at the strategic and concept planning and project programming
stage where the technical and economic feasibility of alternatives will
be compared in order to select the best possible project.
Sustainability decisions made at the beginning of a project life cycle
have a far greater influence than those made at later stages since design
and construction decisions will influence the continuing operating costs
and, in many cases, revenues over the buildingfs lifetime
(ix) Participation of stakeholders in construction process
Early participation of stakeholders in the construction process is needed.
The participatory approach needs to be emphasized to all stakeholders
to encourage successful implementation of projects.
(x) Holistic design concept
Need to encourage the use of holistic building concept (Integrated Design
Process). Basic understanding of the concept will lead to appreciation
of integrated design team which encourages involvement of stake holders
from the beginning.
(viii) Financial support
Financing of sustainable building projects are major problem unless if
(xi) Public-Private partnership
From case studies, most economic players agree that to undertake sustainable
building projects a gpurely publich or gpurely privateh
mechanism will no longer fit the bill. It can be seen that Public-Private
Partnerships (PPPs) are not simply a budgetary tool, but a fully-fledged
instrument that encourages co-development and contributes at an operational
level to general socio-economic growth.